Drone Detection and Neutralisation Technologies – Part II

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Since 2015, CERBAIR developed its own radiofrequency spectrum analysis algorithm. In the first part of this post, we showed the pros and cons of every type of detection technologies. Among its perks, cost effectiveness is perhaps the main factor that led us to this choice. It is the backbone of our competitiveness. Radiofrequency is also the only available technology that allows the user to detect both the drone and its pilot, a key advantage for law enforcement. Using the same data, the drone model can be identified as well. Furthermore, detection using this method is passive, emitting no interferences of any kind. By applying our sorting algorithms, we have managed to push the ranges up to 4 km in optimal conditions. But it is one thing to detect an incoming threat from afar. Whether the motive is espionage, collision or attack, a sensitive site needs to have its resources protected by a jamming device, capable of preventing the threat from penetrating its valuable airspace and assets. Is radiofrequency-based jamming a proper solution to get rid of malevolent drones ?


A/ The three decisive factors of a realistic CUAV offer. 

Before we deep dive into “the art of neutralisation”, a dual detection-jamming solution should rely on three pillars:

  • The versatility of the offer
  • The cost-efficiency
  • The reliance and accuracy, through a multi-technology solution

1. The Versatility of our Offer

Based on our RF spectrum analysis technology, we offer three different dual detection-jamming solutions with different formats. The latter deeply impacts the efficiency and availability of the protection.

  • Stationary solution: the CERBAIR Stationary solution is permanently installed on the sensitive site. The number of HYDRA™ RF sensors and their configuration depend mainly on the specifications of the site. It is always possible to upgrade the solution after installation without having to replace the entire system, letting the user a perfect control of budget and evolving security needs. Thus, we fulfil our scalability promises. A GUI* can also be implemented into the existing security systems. This solution is especially dedicated to provide a reliable coverage to permanent sensitive sites: official buildings, nuclear power plants, military bases, etc…
  • Mobile solution: the CERBAIR mobile solution is especially designed to detect drones and protect sensitive sites or events over short periods of time. Due to its reduced size, it can easily fit into a SUV, heli or airplane, making transport hassle-free. Only requiring 2 operators, installation is rapid and easy. This system is 100% autonomous and powered by an external generator or can be plugged into a general power supply.
  • Portable solution: our portable anti-drone solution, called CHIMERA, provides power and ease-of-use in a small and cost-efficient package. The combination of our detection and neutralisation technologies make this solution unique on the market. It is ideal for use by Law Enforcement officers in urban environments.

2. The Cost-Efficiency

The answer comes from the asymmetrical nature of this fight.

  • Ease of installation and use, close to no maintenance, non-prohibitive price, accessibility on the civilian market and on-line stores, availability of unrestricted off-the-shelf components, etc… These factors explain why civilian drones are affordable to any potential attackers.
  • On the other hand, classic AA* defence can find themselves unsuited for such type of threats. More expensive by factors of thousands, regulatory constraints that only make it available for military and law enforcement, complexity and time of installation and use, etc…

This asymmetrical nature justifies the need for cost-effectiveness, increased availability, and accessibility to non-specialized operators. Thanks to its historical design-to-cost strategy, CERBAIR has targeted this very market, offering the most cost-effective solution to its clients worldwide.

3. A Multi-Technology Solution

As shown in our Incident Drone Reports, the threat is, in essence, ever-changing (for instance C4 and handmade grenades tapped to drones in Mexico and Middle-East). CERBAIR is developing additional detection technologies conceived to be plugged to the radiofrequency core. Our project is to create a final solution which would be able to combine radiofrequency, radar, acoustic and optronic able to combine every advantage of each technologies into a single hardware base.

The process works as follows:

  • The RF sensors detect when the drone is powered up. The sensors are able to track the drone on a 360° basis.
  • Once the RF device have detected a drone, an integrated radar and an acoustic sensor further enhances the UAV tracking.
  • The optronic module then allows the user to confirm the model of the civilian drone indicated by the detection algorithm, further removing doubt from the equation.


B/ RF-based UAV neutralization: drawbacks VS perks

1. Neutralization technologies and its challenges

  • Jamming solutions rely on technologies unrestricted to civilian infrastructures. 
  • An anti-drone offer should rely on non-kinetic means of defence, as it should be proper to use in urban areas.
  • Optimal cost-efficiency should be one of the main priorities. This could be achieved by using a common hardware base for both detection and jamming.
  • Finally, as civilian drones can potentially pose as a mobile and ever-changing threat, scalability and updatability are factors worth mentioning.

2. MEDUSA, CERBAIR’s answer to the growing civilian drone threat

Before we compare an RF-based UAV jamming solution to the aforementioned factors, we must first further elaborate its functioning.

MEDUSA™ is a compact neutralization solution, able to fit in the trunk of any SUV. It comes in addition to the HYDRA™ detection module, receiving live data from our RF spectrum analyzer.

  • Based on the information provided by our detection module HYDRA™, MEDUSA™ then takes control and sends pulses on the same RF band. Unable to receive orders from its operator, the drone finds itself isolated.
  • At this stage, three reactions can be initiated, according to the manufacturer’s or the operator’s settings:
    • RTH*: The Return Home function can be triggered. Unable to communicate with its pilot, the civilian UAV returns to a predetermined location set up in advance. Useful against ill-trained civilians, who only crossed boundaries by inadvertence or loss of control. The drone automatically comes back to the user.
    • The second jamming option will force the drone to hover at the same location until it runs out of battery.
    • By breaking the link between the UAV and its operator, the only possible option for the drone is to activate the soft landing procedure.

NB : user doesn’t have a hand over which reaction will be triggered. This factor strictly depends on the security protocols the drones use.

3/ Pros and cons

The drawbacks of an RF-based jamming solution:

  • Up to now, autonomous drones remain undetected due to the lack of ascending and descending signals.
  • Ambient RF pollution, which can be found in urban environment, is also an issue which our team of engineers are currently working on.

The perks of our solution:

  • The detection and jamming module work in tandem, further facilitating the security procedures on the client’s sites.
  • According to the sensitive location specifications, the end-user can choose the format and the number of required solutions, thanks to the scalability of our offer.
  • The RF database is regularly updated, upgrading the coverage.
  • Using this technological core, our client neutralize the drone. Operations meant to prevent drug smugglings are greatly facilitated. A situation well known by CBP agents (U.S. Customs and Border Protection), who face regular drug smuggling along the Mexican border.


CERBAIR aims to provide the most cost-effective solution on the market and appropriately respond to the asymmetrical nature of the threat. Our solutions are designed to be used for sensitive site protection, whether permanently or temporarily. Scalability and adaptability for safer skies.

Want to Learn More?

The anti-drone market is is crowded (more than 220 providers worldwide) and choosing the right system might seem impossibly intimidating. CERBAIR has produced a white paper on the subject, complete with descriptions of drone detection and neutralization systems and a convenient checklist to help security administrators determine the best choice for their airspace. Download your copy ofThe Beginner’s Guide to Securing Sensitive Airspace with Anti-Drone Technology to learn more.

Additionally, contact us for more info on our solutions our sales team is fully ready to answer.


CUAV: Counter-Unmanned-Aerial Vehicule

AA: Anti-Aerial (Defence)

GUI: General User Interface

RTH: For instance, in 2015, a civilian flew an unrestricted drone under alcohol influence over the White House garden, crashing onto a tree. Although his intents weren’t harmful, an C-UAV solution able to trigger an RTH function would have been useful in this situation.

A Round-the-World Look at Drone Regulations

When did “COTS” (Commercial Off The Shelf) or hobby drones first enter your consciousness? Can you even remember? Perhaps it was a holiday gift for a young family member or video filmed from spectacular heights and uploaded to YouTube. Though Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or “drones” have been around for decades, it’s only within the past 10 years or so that they’ve become widely available to the public. And with that increase availability came a number of unexpected security headaches.

The Threat Emerges

Before the democratization of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) technology in the early teens, there was almost no drone-specific legislation anywhere. Drones and their actions were mostly covered by rules governing civil aviation and lumped in with model airplanes and kites. A noticeable shift in the attitude of authorities towards consumer drones began around 2014 following a number of high-profile incidents involving drones:

  • October/November 2014Unidentified drones are spotted hovering over 13 separate nuclear power plants in France in what the Secretariat-General for National Defence and Security describes as an “organized provocation”
  • January 2015 – A drone ends up on the White House lawn in Washington, DC after the drunken pilot loses control of the device. The incident provokes a Secret Service investigation and raises concerns that the US capital could come under threat from consumer drones
  • April 2015 – A drone carrying a small amount of radioactive material is discovered on the roof of the offices of the Prime Minister of Japan. The pilot, who was protesting the use of nuclear energy in the country, received a suspended two-year sentence

Authorities Take Action

As complaints and reported incidents began piling up, taking many civil aviation authorities by surprise, a serious movement to bring drones and their operators under some sort of government control began taking shape. Although uneven, some common elements appear:

  • Limiting maximum flight altitude, often to around 120m (400ft)
  • Restricting drone operation to within line-of-sight and daytime hours
  • Banning unauthorized drone activity near airfields
  • Banning or restricting drone flights over populated areas
  • Prohibition of drone operation in disaster areas or near emergency operations

Still, drone regulations remain a subject of confusion for many including drone pilots themselves.

CerbAir’s Newest Anti-Drone Resource

That potential for confusion among pilots and security administrators alike was a major motivating factor when it came to determining the subject matter of our new White Paper. We wanted to give readers a global look at the current state of drone-related legislation: perhaps to inspire them to push for new ideas or reform in their own regions or simply to inform them of their rights and responsibilities under existing laws.

We’re excited to present our newest White Paper and anti-drone resource: A Survey of Drone Regulations Around the World. Within you’ll find an overview of drone-related legislation in five countries around the world as well as helpful links and resources to learn more.

Click here to get your copy.

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A drone or not a drone? Getting this question wrong could cost you

Was It Just a Case of Mistaken Identity?

On 22 January 2019, it happened again, or did it? A drone was spotted by two pilots approaching Newark Liberty International Airport – one of two international hubs that serve New York City. According to pilot reports, the device was soaring at an altitude of 3500 feet (1066 meters), well above the 400 feet (122 meters) prescribed by current civil aviation code.

Given the recent events on the other shore of the Atlantic – in the UK, Newark’s authority was taking no chances. The runway was closed with flights delayed or diverted, only to be re-opened 90 minutes later after no new drone sightings were reported. It seemed Newark’s mystery drone pilot wasn’t hellbent on causing any further trouble.

But within hours of the initial sighting, naysayers began popping up all over social media and the blogosphere – questioning if there had been a drone at all. As a recent article on the blog DroneDJ noted, even DJI jumped into the fray with the company’s Vice-President of Policy and Legal Affairs calling the sighting “not credible” on his personal Twitter account.


The official DJI account was more cautious in its assessment of the event but urged everyone to keep an open mind while reminding us of all the other times a bat, a balloon or even an airborne plastic bag had been mistaken for a rogue UAV bent on air traffic disruption.


Confusion Abounds

This isn’t the first time a drone sighting has been called into question. Readers may recall that in the heady swirl of confusion over the Gatwick shutdown Detective Chief Superintendent Jason Tingley of Sussex police himself wondered – perhaps a bit too publicly – if the reason his officers couldn’t track down the offending device was that “there may not have been any genuine drone activity in the first place.”

The Sussex Police department was quick to issue a clarification of the Detective’s statement and a British government spokesperson characterized the quote as a miscommunication. Given the multiple witnesses who attest to having seen the UAV hovering over or near the runway, it’s highly likely that the Gatwick Drone was an authentic – and very costly – rogue drone intrusion.

But, why are these intrusions so difficult to pin down? Part of the reason may lie in the instrument used to make and confirm the majority of sightings – the human eye.

Visual Confirmation of Drone Sightings Is Not Enough

Human vision is not particularly well adapted to accurately identifying fast moving objects. A study conducted in 2012 by researchers at the University of Sydney’s school of psychology revealed that the brain sees fast-moving objects by “using blurs or streaks, as seen in photographs.”

Co-author of the paper Professor David Alais added, “The brain doesn’t see instantaneously. It takes about 100 milliseconds for the neurons in the brain to fully encode information.” Thus a quick-moving device like a drone may register as a blur across the field of vision.

While the brain can recognize the general direction of the blur and perhaps some aspects of its color and form, 100% accurate identification of the object in question is difficult. Throw in unfavorable light or weather conditions and certainty becomes even more elusive. Such factors help explain a large number of false UAV sightings in which a half-glimpsed balloon or plastic bag becomes a drone in the mind of the witness – his or her brain is spitting out the “most logical” interpretation of what it didn’t fully understand.

Given that some modified UAV’s can travel at speeds up to 260kmh (163 mph) in optimal conditions, the opposite may also occur. A real drone could be mistaken for a natural object, like a bird, and the threat goes unnoticed. Given the serious danger the hard metal parts and lithium batteries in many drones pose to landing and departing aircraft – such an oversight could be fatal.

Airspace Awareness = Airspace Security

And thus, we come to the most important reason accurate identification and investigation of alleged drone threats is so fundamental to the efficient and safe management of an airport: Safety. If an airport authority is aware of all objects in its airspace and able to distinguish between real and false alarms – everyone from administrators to airlines, to pilots to passengers, is safer and freer to go about their business.

But safety alone is only at the top of a very motivating list:

Costs – As any airport authority knows, the price of shutting down a runway – even temporarily – is extremely high. Three separate UAV-related incidents in 2016 alone shut down Dubai International Airport, the world’s 3rd busiest airport by international passenger traffic, with every drone intrusion costing an eyewatering US$1million (875,645€) per minute.

Gatwick was hit by an equally terrifying bill for its nearly 3-day runway closure. According to British press reports, the incident was estimated to have cost the airport authority and airlines over £50million (57millon euros).

With such high financial stakes, shutting down a runway over what turns out to be a free-flying plastic sack or misinterpreted reflection is clearly unacceptable. Airport authorities need to know what is in their airspace, otherwise they and the airlines who depend on their management risk losing millions.

Damaged Reputation – Not to pick on those airports who have suffered a drone intrusion, but it’s not a good look. Gatwick, as well as police and military units called in to find the errant UAV, found themselves the focus of anger and the butt of innumerable internet jokes during the crisis with criticism pouring in from passengers, airlines and government officials alike.

An opinion piece in American news channel Fox News observed acerbically that one tiny drone was managing to hold 100.000 people hostage (In reality over 140.000 passengers were affected) while a former UK Chief of the General Staff and former head of the British Army, Lord Dannatt called the incident a “national embarrassment.” His lordship added, “People in Europe are sniggering at us…and we’ve just given them 36 hours of fun laughing at this pantomime.”

Clearly, having a system in place to reliably distinguish between drones and other airborne objects (as well as the ability to trace any rogue drones and help locate their pilots) would have done much to avoid an embarrassing and demoralizing spectacle.

Airports Council International Calls for Action

The ACI (Airports Council International) is an organization created in 1991 by airport operators around the world and cooperates with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to: “Defend airports’ positions and develop standards and recommended practices in the areas of safety, security and environment initiatives.”

In January 2019 the ACI released an Advisory Bulletin entitled “Airport Preparedness – Drone related disruption to aircraft operations” in which it urged its members to take proper precautions against drone intrusions and the disruptions they’re liable to cause.

While the ACI advises members to be cautious when examining anti-drone systems, “ensuring that any new anti-drone measures do not create unintended safety hazards and unmitigated risks to other manned aircraft, authorized drones, and aviation infrastructures,” it nevertheless encourages airport authorities to take drone detection and neutralization seriously.

As their Advisory Bulletin pointedly states: “It is incumbent on all industry stakeholders to be prepared to protect the safety and regularity of aircraft operations.

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After Gatwick Could Sports Venues Be the Next Great Drone Debacle?

Stadiums Are At Risk From Rogue Drones

After a rather unfortunate end to 2018, Gatwick Airport administrators have learned that a little prevention goes a long way. Europe’s 8th busiest airport is busy installing anti-drone solutions to keep the UAVs away and airport authorities around the globe are following their example and investigating ways of protecting their own runways. Continue reading “After Gatwick Could Sports Venues Be the Next Great Drone Debacle?”