Drone Detection and Neutralization Technologies – Part I

With so many different anti-drone methods jostling for attention, understanding drone detection and neutralization can be an intimidating task. All the same, a handful of technologies have gradually risen above the rest and been adopted by the majority of airspace security providers. How do you choose the drone detection system that’s right for your airspace? The first step is knowing what’s out there. Let’s take a closer look in our two-part series.

Part I – Drone Detection Technologies

Radiofrequency

Radio Frequency or “RF” technology analyses the RF spectrum within the protected area searching for any form of communication between a drone and its remote control. In some cases, RF can even identify the drone make and model as well as the MAC address of WiFi drones.

How It Works

The vast majority of COTS (“Commercial Off The Shelf”) drones are connected to their remote controls over specific frequencies of the radio frequency spectrum. This means that the drones “talk” to their controllers in regular intervals – around 30 times per second – transmitting information such as altitude and position, battery life and video feeds. The remote “answers” back with pilot commands like “Go left”, “Go right”, “Accelerate”, etc.

The advantage of this style is that the signature or protocol of COTS drones is relatively distinct from other communications taking place on the same frequencies. This means that even in a busy urban environment with an enormous number of different signals flying through the air from laptops, smartphones and other devices, drone communication stands out as distinct “peaks” on a spectrum chart.

In a radio frequency-based drone detection set-up a passive radio frequency sensor captures activity on select frequencies of the RF spectrum and relays it to a computer where specialized algorithms compare it to a database of drone protocols. The computer detects and matches the telltale frequency peaks of drone/remote communication with a high amount of accuracy, sounding the alert as soon as the drone and its remote are activated. Given that different drones have different protocols, a good radio frequency detection system can in some cases even identify the flying device’s make and model.

What about more than one drone? Recent reports out of Syria and Iraq have raised concerns over “drone swarms” or groups of drones steered by a single pilot. With radio frequency detection, even if multiple drones intrude into airspace at a given moment, they can all be detected and tracked as long as they communicate with their pilot over the RF spectrum – which is the case with nearly every consumer-grade drone.

Drone and Pilot Geolocation

A particular advantage of RF technology is that certain sensor configurations allow an administrator to discover and track the location of both the drone and its pilot. Given the restrictions placed on drone interception methods, apprehension of the pilot is probably the safest, least complicated and most effective method of neutralizing drone threats at their source.

Nobody’s Perfect

Despite all the advantages of a radio frequency anti-drone solution, like any technology it has its limitations. Autonomous drones pose perhaps the biggest challenge to an RF-based system since an utter lack of communication between the drone and its controller would eliminate all opportunities to detect it on the spectrum.

But a truly autonomous attack – involving a drone able to navigate by GNSS without even sending back its video stream or telemetry information, spontaneously adapting to changes in the environment and avoiding unexpected obstacles – is extremely complex to orchestrate and therefore unlikely. Barring any sudden technological breakthroughs, RF-piloted drones are likely to remain the device of choice for the majority of operators for the foreseeable future.

  • Pros: Very cost-efficient: drone and pilot localization, drone make and model identification, detection beyond 2km in optimal conditions, passive technology -no interferences-, multiple drone detection.
  • Cons: Does not detect fully autonomous drones. Ambient RF pollution may sometimes reduce effectiveness

Radar

Radar can provide effective detection of drone presence over a long range. It can be successfully paired with other technologies, such as RF or optics, to provide more thorough coverage if desired.

How It Works

A radar system has a transmitter that emits radio waves called radar signals that are either reflected back or scattered by objects they encounter. The distorted waves bounce back to the radar receiver where algorithms convert them into a visual on-screen format that gives an idea of encountered object’s shape, size and density.

Most airports use a mix of radars on the Long Range or “L” band and Short Range or S” band in their air traffic control operations. But since drones are far smaller than any airplane or helicopter, they require a different approach.  K and X Band radars are often used for low aerial surveillance, including drone detection, with X being preferable as its shorter wavelengths (8.0 to 12.0 GHz) provide higher level visibility and are more adapted to detecting small targets.

Pulse-Doppler Radar

An object moving closer or farther away from the radar transmitter creates a “Doppler Effect” – a distortion or bend in the radio wave. A Pulse-Doppler radar drone detection system emits periodic bursts of radio waves and measures the bends in the returning radar signal to estimate the distance, speed and characteristics of a detected object.

Drones however are mostly made of plastic which is invisible to radar and only their metal cameras, batteries and motors provide a platform for the radar signals to bounce off of. Here’s where Micro-Pulse Doppler, an even more precise system, comes in – emitting a series of pulses very close together to get a more accurate picture of the monitored target, a necessary feature when attempting to identify objects as tiny as a drone camera or motor (4)(5).

Where Radar Falls Short

Drones are smaller than manned aircraft and tend to fly close to the ground which makes them very difficult for all but the most specialized radar to detect (6). Such systems do exist, but they often present additional issues such as cost, high-false alarm rate and potential interference (7):

– Cost – The most effective drone detection radar systems are more specialized X band Micro-Pulse Doppler models. The initial outlay can be quite costly for a security administrator. But other costs are a result of the very nature of radar. Since it is an “active” or emitting detection technology, the only way for it to work is to be constantly on. Thus, it consumes considerably more energy than a passive system. This also means that radar coverage can knocked out completely if its power supply is disabled by weather, sabotage or malfunction.

– False Alarm Rates – Due to their comparable size and flying patterns, birds tend to create a lot of false alarms when entering the radar coverage.

Potential Interference – Radar’s active nature and the fact that some communications use the same frequencies may mean unintended interference with local broadcasts and the need to obtain a license to operate the system

  • Pros: Constant coverage. Drone tracking. Multiple drone detection
  • Cons: High false alarm rates. Cannot detect nano drones. Struggles to detect micro drones. Can interfere with ambient communications. Can require authorizations from local authorities.

Optics (Camera)

Optics allow visual and/or infrared thermal imaging detection and characterization of approaching drones and drone payloads. Like radar, optics can be successfully combined with RF technology to provide more thorough coverage.

How It Works

Optic detection uses cameras to spot intruding drones. The cameras can be divided into several types including standard visual security cameras, but Electro-Optic Infrared Thermal Imaging (EO/IR) cameras are the most commonly employed for CUAS. They work by using mid-wave Infrared Radiation (MWIR) or long-wave Infrared Radiation (LW IR)) to scan the protected space and specialized algorithms to spot heat differences between drones and their environment.  

The plastic casing protecting a drone’s inner workings is not a heat conductor and the drone’s motor produces far less heat than one might imagine. However, the lithium battery that powers most consumer UAS generates a sufficient amount of heat to be spotted by a human operator using an infrared camera. Infrared cameras are useful from the moment there’s a difference in temperature and can “see” in total darkness without supplemental illumination, which makes them ideal to use at night or in missions where staying inconspicuous is imperative.

False Alarms and Weather Woes

The chief issues confronting an optic anti-drone system are high false alarm rates and weather-related issues. Cameras employing visual scans have shown consistent issues with false alarms due to the difficulty of differentiating between COTS drones and similarly sized airborne objects like birds, or even leaves. To avoid this, a very large database against which the algorithm can compare the detected object is necessary along with heavy processing power.

Some of these challenges may be mitigated by the complementary use of infrared thermal technology to ferret out drones by detecting their heat signatures. But thermal drone detection can be adversely affected by weather conditions. High humidity, rain or dense fog can severely reduce the effectiveness of infrared thermal drone detection as the infrared radiation is scattered by water particles in the air.

In one study, at a Fog Level of III (“visual detection at <300m” using the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) scale) both MWIR and LWIR hardly were virtually no better than visual detection alone. Thus, infrared thermal drone detection becomes problematic in Summer/Winter seasons in Temperate climates and practically year-round in Tropical, Oceanic or Subarctic climates which present high levels of ambient humidity and/or precipitation.

  • Pros: Visuals can be retained and used for forensic evidence of drone intrusions. Infrared cameras can “see” in the dark. Fewer restrictions for use
  • Cons: Without RD or radar to back it up, false alarm rates are high. Performance impacted by light and weather conditions. Difficulties detecting small drones

Acoustic

Acoustic UAV detection sensors pick up vibrations made by the propellers and motors of drones and can match them to a database of drone acoustic signatures.

How It Works

It works by capturing vibrations which drone propellers and motors emit during flight, on a preset noise frequency band. Composed of arrays of multiple microphones, the acoustic drone detection sensors transmit the vibration to a database which uses algorithms to calculate azimuth, thus locating the sector in which the drone is operating and sometimes even the make and model of the drone. If the system is fitted with a large enough and regularly updated database, a large majority of drone models on the market can be identified.

Acoustic technology is lightweight, easy to install and can be used in mountainous or highly urbanized areas where the presence of hillsides or tall buildings might block some other detection methods. It is entirely passive and thus doesn’t interfere with ambient communications and uses little in the way of electric power.

Urban & High-Noise Environments Present a Challenge

While acoustic detection technology’s advantages: lightweight, low power use and passive nature, make it an attractive option, it’s reliance on acoustic signatures is actually its biggest flaw. Drones are becoming ever more silent as the technology evolves and market pressures demand a quieter device (4). And a homemade drone, constructed from spare parts, may not show up at all since it might not match anything in the database.

In addition, acoustic sensors can often detect drones, particularly in noisy environments, only at relatively close distances (less than 1KM in many instances) (2), which isn’t enough to avert an attack or collision. Given these flaws, an acoustic system might be better suited as a backup to more reliable radiofrequency-based technologies like RF or Radar detection.

  • Pros: Can detect autonomous drones and provide azimuthal information on incoming drone direction. Easy installation. Low-energy use, passive technology
  • Cons: Sound database must be constantly updated to be effective. Drones are becoming more and more noiseless as technology advances and homemade drones may not show up. Detection range is often under 1km

No “Perfect” Solution

Each technology has pros and cons and our experience has taught us that there is no single “foolproof” choice. Nevertheless, it is possible to find an extremely effective solution and set-up adapted to your particular situation, particularly if you opt to mix complementary primary technologies (i.e. radio frequency for detection/geolocation and radar to detect autonomous drones) to assure maximum coverage and if the budget permits, secondary technologies (optic and acoustic) to fill in any potential gaps.

As a stand-alone option, nothing beats the effectiveness and cost-to-benefit ratio of radio frequency, which remains the solid foundation of the vast majority of drone detection solutions and for good reasons.

In the next article in this two-part series, CerbAir will explore the often complicated and sometimes surprising world of drone neutralization.

Want to Learn More?

The playing field for anti-drone technology is crowded and choosing the right system might seem impossibly intimidating. CerbAir has produced a white paper on the subject, complete with descriptions of drone detection and neutralization systems and a convenient checklist to help security administrators determine the best choice for their airspace. Download your copy of The Beginner’s Guide to Securing Sensitive Airspace with Anti-Drone Technology today to learn more.

Additionally, check out our article on qualities to look for in an anti-drone security provider here.

The Persian Gulf Region is Facing an Urgent Drone Threat

Recent incidents in the Persian Gulf region are in the headlines and making a lot of people, from oil industry insiders and defense experts to beach-going tourists very nervous. Over the past few days, militants belonging to the rebel group known as Ansarullah or the “Houthis”, have stepped up their campaign to bring the 5-year long Yemen War to the skies over Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Incidents include:

  • 14 May: An armed drone penetrates Saudi airspace and damages an oil pipeline near Riyadh
  • 20 May: An unconfirmed missile launch on Mecca. Saudi officials claim they intercepted two missiles before they reached their targets in the city, but Houthis vehemently deny attacking on Islam’s holiest site
  • 21 May: An armed drone attack on Najran (Saudi Arabia) airport. The airport is principally civilian in nature but houses a military base
  • 22 May: A second armed drone attack on Najran. Saudi officials acknowledge the incident, but do not comment on the extent of damage or casualties

To these latest incidents, add unconfirmed reports of drone attacks on airports in Dubai and Abu Dhabi in 2018 and a deadly exploding UAV over a Yemeni military parade in January 2019 and it’s clear that the Gulf has a drone problem. It’s an issue that has the members of the Saudi-led Gulf Coalition, as well as farther-flung allies like the United States, worried. And it’s not likely to disappear anytime soon and the Yemen War drags on for another deadly year.

No End in Sight

A years-long conflict that has killed tens of thousands and displaced millions, the war in Yemen is also notable for the rapid technological and strategical evolution of a formerly rag-tag band of fighters from the country’s poor northeast. In a relatively short time the Houthis have advanced from traditional ground battles to effective and deadly use of drone and missile technology, often calqued on low-cost military equipment supplied by their Iranian allies.

As noted in an earlier article on our blog, Houthis are reworking fairly simple Iranian Qasef 1/Ababil T model UAVs by adding commercially available GNSS systems and either adding locally made bomb-releasing materials or using the drones as kamikazes to ram targeted infrastructure. The drone attack carried out over al-Anand (Yemen) airforce base demonstrated with multiple casualties the effectiveness of this new technique.

Not facing a military drone threat, but having trouble with intrusive DJI-style consumer drones? Read on to find out how you can successfully deal with civilian drone threats.

Local Drone Threats

As a security administrator or a sensitive site, you probably aren’t facing a Houthi-style insurgency. But, don’t let your guard down just yet. Consumer drones, also known as “COTS” (Commercial Off The Shelf) drones, have been causing quite a few headaches themselves, often without so much a firing a shot.

So, what can you, the security administrator of an oil pipeline, airport or prison authority, or other sensitive site do to stop an intruding drone? As seen during the December 2018 Gatwick incident, the dangers associated with using firearms or radio frequency jamming to bring down a drone make these options nearly impossible in sensitive or urban environments.

And even if your security team manages to destroy the offending device, with drones becoming cheaper and cheaper, a motivated pilot could simply buy a new one and try again.

So, what to do?

Detect the Drone, Catch the Pilot

Simple right? Except when it’s not. Imagine your sensitive site sits in the middle of a dense urban area, surrounded by a tangle of dark alleyways, shuttered warehouses, and private residences. Add to that a thick hale of light, sound and radiofrequency pollution. Now, in that middle of all that mess, try spotting a tiny drone traveling at bursts of 25kph – 30kph (15mph – 20mph) using only your 5 senses. Nine times out of ten you won’t.

And what about the pilot? He could be hiding within a 7 kilometer (4 miles) radius, safely ensconced in any of those alleyways, warehouses or private houses that you don’t have the right to search. It seems grim – and it is! But there’s a solution.

Radio Frequency – Your Site Could Benefit From It

CerbAir uses radiofrequency sensors to detect drones at up to 2km in dense urban settings like the one described above. Our Hydra sensor is able to cut through the ambient noise and frequency pollution thanks to specialized algorithms that “listen” for the distinct communication style that exists between most drones and their remote controls. Even when you can’t see or hear a drone in your vicinity it’s giving off signals that can be detected and be used to flush out its location.

Those same signals can also lead you back to the remote control – and the person operating it. With pilot geolocation, a remote can be pinpointed to within +/- 10° of its actual position, making it much easier for local law enforcement to locate the pilot. Once apprehended, the threat itself is neutralized without the use of complicated and potentially dangerous drone interception techniques.

More Information

Want to know more about radio frequency and drone detection methods? Click here to download our White Paper on choosing the right anti-drone solution for your sensitive site.

Curious about drone regulations in the Gulf Region? Click here to download our overview of drone regulations in countries around the world, including the United Arab Emirates.

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Japan Further Restricts Drone Flights

Japan’s government moved to enact new legislation to restrict the operation of civilian drones over Japanese Self Defense and US military sites as well as over venues for the upcoming 2020 Tokyo Olympics and 2019 Rugby World Cup. Further restrictions reinforce ban the use of drones over or near airports.

According to the Japan Times, an English-language newspaper based in Tokyo, only drones providing coverage for and controlled by authorized media outlets will be allowed to operate over sports events. The Japanese government amended the existing law due to fears of terrorism, citing examples of drone attacks carried out in Venezuela, Syria, Yemen and most recently in Saudi Arabia.

This is not the first time that Japan has tightened its civil aviation laws in response to fears over drone-based attacks.

Japan first amended its Aviation Act and passed a new law in response to an incident in 2015. Yasuo Yamamoto, a 40-year-old environmental activist who was deeply opposed to the use of nuclear energy in Japan, flew a drone loaded with a small amount of radioactive sand over the Prime Minister’s office. The device landed on the roof and was not spotted by an employee until two weeks later, prompting the evacuation of the building.

Since then Japanese authorities have recorded a spike in illegal drone activity – often linked back to foreign tourists who are unaware of the rules.

Following the Yamamoto incident, Japan passed an amendment prohibiting drones, among other places in:

  • Areas where air traffic is expected, such as airports or military bases
  • In designated “Densely Inhabited Districts” (DIDs) or above gatherings of people
  • At a distance of closer than 30 meters (98ft) to people or objects or more than 150 meters (492ft) above ground level

Night time and beyond line of sight flights were also banned.

In 2016, further legislation specifically forbids UAV flights over “important facilities” including government buildings, embassies, and nuclear power facilities.

Tokyo has recently been rattled by a rash of drone sightings in restricted areas including two drone intrusions over the Imperial Palace, residence of the Emperor of Japan, and another sighting over the famous Shibuya street crossing.

Would you like to learn more about drone regulations in other parts of the world? Our white paper, A Survey of Drone Regulations Around the Globe is just what you’re looking for. Download your free copy today.

Click on the link above to download your copy

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Partner Profile: DRONE VOLT

Photo of Olivier Gualdoni, CEO of Drone Volt standing in front of a world map.
Olivier Gualdoni
Exec Chairman & CEO
of DRONE VOLT

DRONE VOLT is the leading French manufacturer of civilian drones for professional use. Founded in 2011, the company has gone from strength to strength, producing UAVs for the Construction, Security, Defense, Energy and Safety sectors. In 2019, DRONE VOLT expanded its airspace security offer by joining forces with CerbAir to provide its customers with a winning combination of surveillance drones and rogue drone detection. In our latest partner profile, Olivier Gualdoni, Executive Chairman & CEO of DRONE VOLT, answers questions on the company’s history, mission and its partnership with CerbAir. (Interview translated from French)

The Company

Can you tell us a little bit about DRONE VOLT: its history, its mission, and services?

DRONE VOLT’s expertise is in onboard artificial intelligence and professional civilian drone construction.

In 2011, DRONE VOLT started out by distributing civilian drones. We made our stock market debut in 2015 at the Paris Bourse and DRONE VOLT is a listed company on the Paris Euronext Growth Market.

In September 2017, we acquired Aerialtronics, a Dutch manufacturer.

Our Group offers a complete selection of professional drones which can carry loads of up to 20kg (44lbs). As a global partner, DRONE VOLT furnishes turnkey business solutions with added services and drone pilot training. DRONE VOLT is a supplier to administrative and industrial clients including the French Army, the French Defense Ministry, Engie, Total, Bouygues ES, ADP, the GTA, and international government agencies.

Our facilities are located mainly in the Benelux area, Canada, Denmark, the US, Switzerland, and Indonesia.

Personal: What path brought you into the security field?

After five years at the helm of the international group Cybergun S.A., which is a global leader in target practice, I joined DRONE VOLT as Director General and became CEO in 2017.

Security

What major security challenges do you foresee in your area of expertise in the next 5 years?

Mainly challenges related to legislation; the establishment of dedicated airspace corridors for drones to allow their flights to be managed as safely as possible.

Have you noted increases in illegal UAS (drone) activity in your country/region?

You could certainly say that there’s been an uptick in illegal drone flights and dangerous drone flights as well, but the trend is declining thanks to more and more restrictions and the efforts of the government.

In France, the administrative framework for professional drone pilots laid out by the DGAC (the French civil aviation authority) from 2012 onward is being constantly updated with new laws and decrees: the newest one on the 1st of March 2019 updated the zones where it’s forbidden to take aerial photos and put in place identification and registration procedures on Alphatango (DGAC website) for flying leisure and professional devices.

Nevertheless, rogue drone intrusions are still a threat to sensitive sites.

Partnership

How do CerbAir’s anti-drone solutions complement your security offer?

The security and protection of civilian and military sites which DRONE VOLT has made one of our commercial priorities requires adapted solutions.

CerbAir’s drone detection and neutralization capabilities, coupled with DRONE VOLT’s surveillance solutions, constitute a high-performance tool unequaled on the market that prevents drone intrusions into defined airspace.

Become a CerbAir partner and join us in the fight to make the skies safer for all. Click here for more information.

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A Round-the-World Look at Drone Regulations

When did “COTS” (Commercial Off The Shelf) or hobby drones first enter your consciousness? Can you even remember? Perhaps it was a holiday gift for a young family member or video filmed from spectacular heights and uploaded to YouTube. Though Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or “drones” have been around for decades, it’s only within the past 10 years or so that they’ve become widely available to the public. And with that increase availability came a number of unexpected security headaches.

The Threat Emerges

Before the democratization of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) technology in the early teens, there was almost no drone-specific legislation anywhere. Drones and their actions were mostly covered by rules governing civil aviation and lumped in with model airplanes and kites. A noticeable shift in the attitude of authorities towards consumer drones began around 2014 following a number of high-profile incidents involving drones:

  • October/November 2014Unidentified drones are spotted hovering over 13 separate nuclear power plants in France in what the Secretariat-General for National Defence and Security describes as an “organized provocation”
  • January 2015 – A drone ends up on the White House lawn in Washington, DC after the drunken pilot loses control of the device. The incident provokes a Secret Service investigation and raises concerns that the US capital could come under threat from consumer drones
  • April 2015 – A drone carrying a small amount of radioactive material is discovered on the roof of the offices of the Prime Minister of Japan. The pilot, who was protesting the use of nuclear energy in the country, received a suspended two-year sentence

Authorities Take Action

As complaints and reported incidents began piling up, taking many civil aviation authorities by surprise, a serious movement to bring drones and their operators under some sort of government control began taking shape. Although uneven, some common elements appear:

  • Limiting maximum flight altitude, often to around 120m (400ft)
  • Restricting drone operation to within line-of-sight and daytime hours
  • Banning unauthorized drone activity near airfields
  • Banning or restricting drone flights over populated areas
  • Prohibition of drone operation in disaster areas or near emergency operations

Still, drone regulations remain a subject of confusion for many including drone pilots themselves.

CerbAir’s Newest Anti-Drone Resource

That potential for confusion among pilots and security administrators alike was a major motivating factor when it came to determining the subject matter of our new White Paper. We wanted to give readers a global look at the current state of drone-related legislation: perhaps to inspire them to push for new ideas or reform in their own regions or simply to inform them of their rights and responsibilities under existing laws.

We’re excited to present our newest White Paper and anti-drone resource: A Survey of Drone Regulations Around the World. Within you’ll find an overview of drone-related legislation in five countries around the world as well as helpful links and resources to learn more.

Click here to get your copy.

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Partner Profile: Protec

Gil Ancelin founded Protec in 2003 after working his way up the ranks of the security and surveillance industry over several years. Today Groupe Protec (link in French), with includes Protec Sécurité, offers services in security, tele-surveillance, reception, as well as security training.

Protec Sécurité specializes in tailored-made security options including:

  • 24/7 tele and video surveillance
  • Alarm management
  • Security agents trained to intervene in a quick and effective manner in even the most sensitive contexts
  • Mobile security units
  • Electronic Security including intrusion and fire detection, technical installation and access-point control
  • “Cyberguarding” long-distance security

Every client offer is customizable with one point of contact handling the entire process

Protect Security
CerbAir Anti-Drone Solutions & Protect Securite join forces

In 2019, Protec Sécurité and CerbAir signed an agreement to join forces to offer our clients the ultimate in security technology and expertise. Protec Sécurité provides a certified and comprehensive security offer that combines the strengths of a highly-trained staff with technology. CerbAir brings to the table its advanced radio-frequency based drone detection.

It with great pride and pleasure that CerbAir announces its newest partnership with Protec Sécurité.

Partner Profile: Securify

CerbAir is proud to partner with Securify, a Scandinavia-based security distributor who specializes in high-end solutions for wide-area intrusion detection and deterrence primarily destined for critical infrastructure such as energy distribution, airports, ports (although scalable to private companies and households). The core of Security’s solution is based on compact surveillance SpotterRF radar and our state-of-the-art Radiofrequency drone detection adds another layer of security to an already high-quality offer.

Securify founder Kenneth Nyström recently to talk about his experiences, the origin of Securify and the challenges he encounters in his field.

Your Company

Can you tell us a little bit about your company, its history, mission, and services?

Kenneth: Securify is founded on the insight that perimeter protection is far more than just cameras and fences. In previous lives, we have worked with video surveillance and analytics and in several situations experienced first hand this technology being both costly and insufficient.

We decided to change the way the market thinks about perimeter security. When many would consider us too small and maybe insignificant, we consider our size to be part of our strengths. Focused, flexible and deeply passionate about our mission, to make a change.

Securify acts as a distributor, but far from the typical archetype, we are specialized and provide field services to support our reseller partners.

Personal: What path brought you into your current field?

Kenneth: During my time at Infralogic I introduced Aimetis to the Swedish market in 2006. I was thrilled by the possibilities of VCA but realized over time that outdoor environments were a challenge and that the end users always wanted “more”, to express my experiences in a positive way.

In late 2012 I began to map the market, hunting for something that could work where analytics, fence sensors, seismic and microwave barriers and laser had all failed. I discovered SpotterRF and instantly understood that I had found the answer. Then and there, I decided that perimeter security would be my future focus.

But the other owners at Infralogic didn’t share my vision so I decided to leave. A few months later I founded Securify.

Security

What major security challenges do you foresee in your area of expertise in the next 5 years?

Kenneth: Mastering technology, new to the security industry, such as radar and passive RF detection will require manufacturers, distributors, and system integrators to collaborate. Due to the rapid development of drones, we face an unprecedented challenge, where military-grade equipment and multi-layer solutions, are required to protect people and society. The logical consequence is that this will lead to a new niche of specialized companies with both relevant tools and experience.

Can you tell us more about increases in illegal UAS (drone) activity in your country/region?

Kenneth: Drones represent a threat in Sweden and Scandinavia. Public airports have on multiple occasions been forced to shut down. Prisons, military facilities, and exercises have all reported drone intrusions. Private companies have experienced situations with drones sightings, potential espionage.

The Swedish government took action and in April 2019 the new Protective Act will take effect. This means that facilities protected by this Act will be able to deter drones with jamming technology.

Partnership

How do CerbAir’s anti-drone solutions complement your security offer?
Kenneth: Passive RF-detection is the primary layer in our C-UAS dual layer approach. By combining RF with Radar we are able to provide highly capable solutions. Securify has made a long term commitment to CerbAir by investing in a mobile Direction Finding system.

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UAS Technology Catches the Eye of UK and US Militaries

UK Defence Minister Gavin Williamson’s announcement that British armed forces are in the midst of developing drone “squadrons” created a buzz in both the defense and UAS worlds. Appearing at an engagement at the Royal United Services Institute, Mr. Williamson spoke of swarms of tiny UAS steered by a single pilot and designed to saturate and eventually completely overwhelm enemy air defenses.

The move comes as the Minister maneuvers to close budget and manpower shortages by employing AI and a combination of commercial and military technology.

The US Air Force Joins the Game

Britain is far from alone in its interest as cheaper drone models are seducing military strategists worldwide. In 2018, the Pentagon included UAS among the emerging technologies it was looking to incorporate into its new “Flight Path” strategy for the US Air Force. It came to that conclusion after Red Team exercises revealed that traditional staples of US air power like Predator and Global Hawk military drones were becoming a thing of the past.

“Gremlins” – DARPA’s project to “develop a full-scale technology demonstration featuring the air recovery of multiple low-cost, reusable UAS.”

“What we see is that the traditional big wing ISR has been routinely losing effectiveness over time,noted Kenneth Bray, the Air Force’s deputy chief for ISR, at a conference held in August 2018, adding that the Pentagon was not going to wait to move forward with new innovations, even if there will still a few kinks to work out.

Drones, specifically devices made of lower cost, sometimes mass-produced materials, provide an interesting alternative to the much more expensive Predators of old. And they bring with them the additional benefit of speed, with their artificial intelligence powered sensors and processors allowing airmen more leeway to think critically rather than merely process data according to another official.

From a Trickle to a Torrent

Of course, those in know are aware that expensive materials and sophisticated AI aren’t obligatory to turn a drone into a military asset.

The separatist conflict in eastern Ukraine has been marked by a steady stream of commercial and locally produced drones employed by both sides in a surprisingly wide variety of roles: providing surveillance footage of on the emplacement of artillery, tanks, and rocket systems, smuggling of provisions and even “kamikaze” drones designed to be sacrificed in an attack on enemy forces.

An emphasis on surveillance and attack was similarly observed in fights with the Islamic State during the Syrian Civil War as well as the effort to push the jihadist fighters out of Mosul, Iraq. Coalition troops regularly reported being harassed by quadcopters and dozens of Iraqi troops were killed or wounded by 40-millimeter grenades and light explosives dropped from UAS buzzing just out of reach, described by one serviceman as “killer bees.”

In most cases the devices were either off-the-shelf hobby drones modified to carry a single explosive or locally-produced UAS whipped up out of mix of homemade and commercially available parts, often sourced through third parties from unsuspecting wholesalers in Europe and Asia.

Beyond the Middle East, Islamic State affiliates in the Philippines, Libya and Yemen have reportedly used drones for surveillance as well Hezbollah in Lebanon and the Taliban in Afghanistan.

For Dan Gettinger, co-director of the Center for the Study of the Drone at Bard College, nothing can stop the coming flood of UAS expected to darken the skies of battlefields all over the globe: “The U.S. military and any military has to prepare for an operating environment in which enemy drones are not just occasional, but omnipresent,” adding, “Whether it’s a small, tactical UAS, midsize or strategic, drones of any size will be commonplace on the battlefield of the future.

The Chinese and Iranian Factors

The easy availability of drone technology itself might be partly to blame for their increasing presence in war. The devices can be mass-produced cheaply, parts are simple to procure and online vendors can ship them to virtually any part of the world.

Even for UAS specifically conceived for combat, prices are falling as producers like China are challenging American dominance in the field in more ways than one. A report on drone proliferation in the Middle East released by the Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies noted that in addition to the relatively low cost of Chinese made drones, China’s “no questions asked” sales methods did much to contribute to the jump in drone numbers in Middle Eastern nations:

“Purchasing armed drones from China, a country which does not abide by the MTCR, enables them to gain access to this technology without being barred by international norms. Although Chinese operators often conduct initial sorties, including combat ones, they do not appear to insist on particular procedures but instead enable and teach new users to employ their armed UAVs as they wish.”

The report also names Iran as an emerging manufacturer of low cost (and no strings attached) UAV technology, noting that Iran does discriminate between state and non-state actors such as insurgent groups. Though evidence and details are still “feeble”, it is suspected that Iran “might have supplied armed drones to Hamas, Hizbullah and the Houthis as well as the regime of Bashar Al-Assad in Syria.

As noted in a previous blog post, some non-state groups have become particularly adept at adapting Iranian or Chinese low-grade military drone technology with the addition of commercial parts or technology to produce a sort of “Frankendrone” that while clunky, gets the job done.

The Houthi rebels of Yemen are an excellent example of this. In January 2019 they sent an armed Iranian-made Qasef-1 fitted with civilian GPS to attack a Government military parade, killing several including a high-ranking intelligence official.

A Problem of Speed

Even though militaries appear to be enthusiastic about the potential of UAS and well aware of the risks stemming from its proliferation – actual rollout of reliably functional battle drones seems to be proceeding at a slower pace than many would prefer.

In the case of the UK, many were skeptical of Williamson’s promise that the UK could develop drone swarm squadrons “ready to be deployed by the end of this year (2019)” with one expert stating that the idea of swarm drones was “very much at the concept stage, and it’s very unlikely he can meet the deadline of the end of the year.

Indeed, for the moment the most dynamic players in the new drone arms race appear to be non-state actors, who faced with the overwhelming fire power and budgets of traditional state militaries are making due with what they can find and in an often very effective and potentially deadly way. It seems necessity really is the mother of invention.

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How can I Choose the Right Anti Drone Security System?

Airspace security is an extremely complex topic where a great number of factors need to be taken into consideration to provide the best possible solution for a given site. Given the depth of the topic and the enormous amount of competing anti-drone systems (also known as “CUAS” or “CUAV”) on the market, how can you choose a system that provides optimal airspace security at the best cost/efficiency ratio and over the longest possible period?

Qualities to Look For

Strangely enough, the same qualities that make a good friend are the same ones you should be looking for in a provider:  

  • Are they someone you can trust? Ask for references. Any serious counter UAV (“counter drone”) provider will be willing to provide client and partner references and most likely specific use cases to prove they know what they’re talking about. Also, be careful about maximum coverage ranges. Ask the provider if the drone detection ranges they’re giving you are under average or ideal conditions. The difference may be surprising.
  • Are they committed? Does the provider make the sale and that’s the end of the relationship? Just like a “friend” who disappears once they’ve got what they wanted, a provider who cuts all contact post-sale is someone to watch out for. Look for an anti drone security company that watches over you. Post-sale service, software updates, and troubleshooting are essential.
  • Are they knowledgeable? We’ve all seen that annoying guy who claims to know it all but can’t back it up. Test a potential provider’s knowledge and background. Does their representative and/or team have experience in the defense and security fields? What about their materials – do they straddle the fine line between in-depth and easy-to-understand, or do they go too far one way or the other? Can they explain how their technology works in a simple and thorough way?
  • Are they passionate? Trustworthiness, commitment, and knowledge are all extremely important qualities, but without a passionate outlook, a friendship risks falling flat. Is the provider you’re considering constantly learning and updating their knowledge on the CUAS field and all its innovations? Are they already doing their own research and development, or planning too soon, or do they purchase all their technology from third parties? A motivated airspace security provider will always be on the lookout for the newest threats and the latest solutions.

Anti-Drone Solutions Tailored to Your Needs

So, you’ve found an airspace security provider that seems to have all the qualities you’re looking for. Now it’s time to take a closer look at their equipment. While it’s extremely important to have a passionate and knowledgeable security team, without the right tools your airspace is still at high risk. Ask yourself the following questions when examining counter UAS technology:

Think Long Term

  • Can you scale it to your site needs? Is the technology offered modular? That is – can you easily add or subtract elements without having to replace the entire system?
  • Is it upgradable? Is the CUAS solution on offer a good investment over the long-term? Can the software and hardware be easily and regularly updated to keep up with new threats?
  • How durable is it? Is it going to last? And is it resistant to rain, snow, and extreme temperatures? This is especially important if the technology will be permanently installed outdoors.

Ease of Use

  • Is the technology intuitive and simple to use with minimal training? Does it feature a logical and easy interface?
  • Can the anti-drone solution be integrated into your existing security system? How about on-site installation and/or set-up? Drones are quick, your airspace security solution needs to be up and running fast.

Features

  • What is the solution’s base technology? Radar, Radiofrequency, Optic (Camera) or Sonic? How well do any of those particular technologies match the risk profile, topography and ambient pollution of your site? What are their advantages and weaknesses? Don’t hesitate to ask a potential provider to answer these questions.
  • Is the anti-drone solution reactive? How quickly can it detect a drone within its operating range? And what are its detection and false alarm rates – again, under average rather than ideal circumstances?
  • Does the CUAS technology give you the ability to detect the location of both the drone and pilot? Given restrictions on kinetic and non-kinetic drone neutralization in many jurisdictions, locating and arresting the UAV pilot is often the best way to quickly and permanently stop a drone threat.
  • Can the provider’s solution handle a multiple drone intrusion? Drone swarms are the next big security challenge in airspace security. Can the provider’s technology deal with multiple UAS without becoming saturated?
  • Is the technology low interference or passive? Local authorities can be extremely sensitive about “frequency pollution”. Is the provider’s technology low interference or even passive (only emitting a signal when in use)?

Costs

  • What about operating costs? How much does it cost to run the technology? Does it consume large amounts of electricity? Does it require a dedicated staff member to operate?
  • Does the CUAS solution hit the high quality/fair price sweet spot? While airspace security is an investment, it need not be excessively expensive. Does the provider offer a fair cost to quality ratio?

Many factors go into choosing the right airspace security provider. But with a little research and by asking the right questions, you’re sure to find the best provider and technologies to protect your sensitive site or event from rogue drone intrusions.

In the next installment, we’ll take a closer look at different anti-drone technologies.

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A drone or not a drone? Getting this question wrong could cost you

Was It Just a Case of Mistaken Identity?

On 22 January of this year, it happened again, or did it? A drone was spotted by two pilots approaching Newark Liberty International Airport – one of two international hubs that serve New York City. According to pilot reports, the device was soaring at an altitude of 3500 feet (1066 meters), well above the 400 feet (122 meters) prescribed by current civil aviation code.

Given the recent events on the other shore of the Atlantic – in the UK, Newark’s authority was taking no chances. The runway was closed with flights delayed or diverted, only to be re-opened 90 minutes later after no new drone sightings were reported. It seemed Newark’s mystery drone pilot wasn’t hellbent on causing any further trouble.

But within hours of the initial sighting, naysayers began popping up all over social media and the blogosphere – questioning if there had been a drone at all. As a recent article on the blog DroneDJ noted, even DJI jumped into the fray with the company’s Vice-President of Policy and Legal Affairs calling the sighting “not credible” on his personal Twitter account.

The official DJI account was more cautious in its assessment of the event but urged everyone to keep an open mind while reminding us of all the other times a bat, a balloon or even an airborne plastic bag had been mistaken for a rogue UAV bent on air traffic disruption.

Confusion Abounds

This isn’t the first time a drone sighting has been called into question. Readers may recall that in the heady swirl of confusion over the Gatwick shutdown Detective Chief Superintendent Jason Tingley of Sussex police himself wondered – perhaps a bit too publicly – if the reason his officers couldn’t track down the offending device was that “there may not have been any genuine drone activity in the first place.”

The Sussex Police department was quick to issue a clarification of the Detective’s statement and a British government spokesperson characterized the quote as a miscommunication. Given the multiple witnesses who attest to having seen the UAV hovering over or near the runway, it’s highly likely that the Gatwick Drone was an authentic – and very costly – rogue drone intrusion.

But, why are these intrusions so difficult to pin down? Part of the reason may lie in the instrument used to make and confirm the majority of sightings – the human eye.

Visual Confirmation of Drone Sightings Is Not Enough

Human vision is not particularly well adapted to accurately identifying fast moving objects. A study conducted in 2012 by researchers at the University of Sydney’s school of psychology revealed that the brain sees fast-moving objects by “using blurs or streaks, as seen in photographs.”

Co-author of the paper Professor David Alais added, “The brain doesn’t see instantaneously. It takes about 100 milliseconds for the neurons in the brain to fully encode information.” Thus a quick-moving device like a drone may register as a blur across the field of vision.

While the brain can recognize the general direction of the blur and perhaps some aspects of its color and form, 100% accurate identification of the object in question is difficult. Throw in unfavorable light or weather conditions and certainty becomes even more elusive. Such factors help explain a large number of false UAV sightings in which a half-glimpsed balloon or plastic bag becomes a drone in the mind of the witness – his or her brain is spitting out the “most logical” interpretation of what it didn’t fully understand.

Given that some modified UAV’s can travel at speeds up to 260kmh (163 mph) in optimal conditions, the opposite may also occur. A real drone could be mistaken for a natural object, like a bird, and the threat goes unnoticed. Given the serious danger the hard metal parts and lithium batteries in many drones pose to landing and departing aircraft – such an oversight could be fatal.

Airspace Awareness = Airspace Security

And thus, we come to the most important reason accurate identification and investigation of alleged drone threats is so fundamental to the efficient and safe management of an airport: Safety. If an airport authority is aware of all objects in its airspace and able to distinguish between real and false alarms – everyone from administrators to airlines, to pilots to passengers, is safer and freer to go about their business.

But safety alone is only at the top of a very motivating list:

Costs – As any airport authority knows, the price of shutting down a runway – even temporarily – is extremely high. Three separate UAV-related incidents in 2016 alone shut down Dubai International Airport, the world’s 3rd busiest airport by international passenger traffic, with every drone intrusion costing an eyewatering US$1million (875,645€) per minute.

Gatwick was hit by an equally terrifying bill for its nearly 3-day runway closure. According to British press reports, the incident was estimated to have cost the airport authority and airlines over £50million (57millon euros).

With such high financial stakes, shutting down a runway over what turns out to be a free-flying plastic sack or misinterpreted reflection is clearly unacceptable. Airport authorities need to know what is in their airspace, otherwise they and the airlines who depend on their management risk losing millions.

Damaged Reputation – Not to pick on those airports who have suffered a drone intrusion, but it’s not a good look. Gatwick, as well as police and military units called in to find the errant UAV, found themselves the focus of anger and the butt of innumerable internet jokes during the crisis with criticism pouring in from passengers, airlines and government officials alike.

An opinion piece in American news channel Fox News observed acerbically that one tiny drone was managing to hold 100.000 people hostage (In reality over 140.000 passengers were affected) while a former UK Chief of the General Staff and former head of the British Army, Lord Dannatt called the incident a “national embarrassment.” His lordship added, “People in Europe are sniggering at us…and we’ve just given them 36 hours of fun laughing at this pantomime.”

Clearly, having a system in place to reliably distinguish between drones and other airborne objects (as well as the ability to trace any rogue drones and help locate their pilots) would have done much to avoid an embarrassing and demoralizing spectacle.

Airports Council International Calls for Action

The ACI (Airports Council International) is an organization created in 1991 by airport operators around the world and cooperates with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to: “Defend airports’ positions and develop standards and recommended practices in the areas of safety, security and environment initiatives.”

In January 2019 the ACI released an Advisory Bulletin entitled “Airport Preparedness – Drone related disruption to aircraft operations” in which it urged its members to take proper precautions against drone intrusions and the disruptions they’re liable to cause.

While the ACI advises members to be cautious when examining anti-drone systems, “ensuring that any new anti-drone measures do not create unintended safety hazards and unmitigated risks to other manned aircraft, authorized drones, and aviation infrastructures,” it nevertheless encourages airport authorities to take drone detection and neutralization seriously.

As their Advisory Bulletin pointedly states: “It is incumbent on all industry stakeholders to be prepared to protect the safety and regularity of aircraft operations.

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